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We Have added this resource Centre for you to research and gain the Knowledge, Knowledge is power. By understanding what the body requires for optimum nutritional health can in turn have a positive effect on disease.

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Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply, and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption. Buccal dosage forms will also be reviewed with an emphasis on bio adhesive polymeric based delivery systems


The above is an abstract for an article on This article was published January 1998. The following is the link to the full article:


Shojaei AH. Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 1998 Jan-Apr;1(1):15-30. PMID: 10942969.


For years now, the delivery of small molecules through the buccal mucosal route has been described in the literature, but it has only been over the past decade that investigations into macromolecule delivery via the buccal route have sharply increased. The administration of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides, antibodies, or nucleic acids by buccal administration would be greatly enhanced due to the avoidance of the gastrointestinal conditions, rapid uptake into systemic circulation, as well as the potential for controlled drug delivery. Since macromolecules are faced with a number of specific challenges related to permeation through the epithelium, several strategies have been employed historically to improve their buccal absorption and subsequent bioavailability. Several conventional strategies to improve macromolecule penetration include the use of chemical permeation enhancers, enzyme inhibitors and the use of mucoadhesive materials acting as carriers. More recent approaches include the incorporation of the macromolecule as part of nanostructured delivery systems to further enhance targeting and delivery. This review focuses on the different permeation enhancing strategies as well as formulation design that are tailored to meet the challenges of active macromolecule delivery using the buccal mucosal route of administration.


The above is an abstract for an article on This article was published March 10, 2014. The following is the link to the full article:


Morales JO, McConville JT. Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014 May;40(5):579-90. doi: 10.3109/03639045.2014.892960. Epub 2014 Mar 10. PMID: 24611816.


Buccal formulations have been developed to allow prolonged localised therapy and enhanced systemic delivery. The buccal mucosa, however, while avoiding first-pass effects, is a formidable barrier to drug absorption, especially for biopharmaceutical products (proteins and oligonucleotides) arising from the recent advances in genomics and proteomics. The buccal route is typically used for extended drug delivery, so formulations that can be attached to the buccal mucosa are favoured. The bio adhesive polymers used in buccal drug delivery to retain a formulation are typically hydrophilic macro-molecules containing numerous hydrogen bonding groups. Newer second-generation bio adhesives have been developed and these include modified or new polymers that allow enhanced adhesion and/or drug delivery, in addition to site-specific ligands such as lectins. Over the last 20 years a wide range of formulations has been developed for buccal drug delivery (tablet, patch, liquids and semisolids) but comparatively few have found their way onto the market. Currently, this route is restricted to the delivery of a limited number of small lipophilic molecules that readily cross the buccal mucosa. However, this route could become a significant means for the delivery of a range of active agents in the coming years, if the barriers to buccal drug delivery are overcome. Patient acceptability and the successful systemic delivery of large molecules (proteins, oligonucleotides and polysaccharides) via this route remains both a significant opportunity and challenge, and new/improved technologies may be required to address these.


The above is an abstract for an article on This article was published May 2005. The following is the link to the full article:


Smart JD. Buccal drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005 May;2(3):507-17. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2.3.507. PMID: 16296771.


Novel strategies for the buccal delivery of macromolecules



Alzheimer’s Disease is the most common type of neurodegenerative disease leading to dementia in the elderly.  A study recently published in Frontiers in Neuroscience presents a systematic review of the association between folate and Alzheimer's Disease.  The study included 62 publications of which 59 were included for further meta-analysis, with the results concluding that there is reason to believe that a deficiency in folate increases the risk of developing the disease, and that ensuring a sufficient daily intake of folate may help to reduce t

the risk of developing Alzheimer’s Disease.

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